How to Become a Urologist

Updated on January 15, 2024


Becoming a urologist takes many years of education and training, but it’s a rewarding career path for those dedicated to the genitourinary system. First and foremost, aspiring urologists must obtain an undergraduate degree, typically focusing their studies on biology, chemistry, anatomy, and other sciences relevant to medicine. After earning a bachelor’s degree, the next step is to apply to and attend medical school, which involves an additional four years. Following medical school, newly minted doctors enter a urology residency program where they gain hands-on experience treating patients under the supervision of experienced urologists. Residencies last approximately 5-6 years. Afterward, urologists may pursue subspecialty fellowship training or begin practicing medicine as attending urologists once they obtain their license. In summary, becoming a practicing urologist takes four years of medical school plus 5+ years of residency training, but the long journey is rewarding for those dedicated to the specialty.

What is a Urologist?

A urologist is a physician specializing in diseases and conditions of the urinary tract and male reproductive systems. Urologists diagnose and treat issues involving the bladder, kidneys, ureters, urethra, adrenal glands, and male reproductive organs.

Some common conditions that urologists treat include:

Additionally, urologists regularly perform surgeries like vasectomies]and circumcisions, as well as more complex cancer and reconstructive surgeries. They are trained in minimally invasive surgical techniques involving lasers and robots.

In a nutshell, urologists are surgical specialists focused on the urinary tracts and male reproductive systems. They provide medical and surgical care to patients experiencing issues with bladder control, kidney function, male fertility, and more. Their broad training enables them to provide complete care ranging from diagnosis to treatment and long-term disease management.

What do Urologists do?

Urologists are physicians who specialize in the urinary tract system of males and females and the male reproductive system. As such, some of the main duties of a urologist include:

In summary, urologists diagnose and treat all types of conditions affecting the urinary tract and male reproductive systems. This often involves both surgical and medical management for various urologic diseases. Now that we’ve covered some of the main responsibilities let’s discuss the training required actually to become a practicing urologist.

Educational Requirements for Becoming a

Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

The first step to becoming an urologist is earning a bachelor’s degree at an accredited 4-year university. While any major is acceptable, common majors for aspiring urologists include biology, chemistry, biochemistry, or health sciences. Ensure to maintain a high GPA (3.6 or higher) and take prerequisite courses for medical school like biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Consider volunteering or working in a healthcare setting to gain experience.

Complete Medical School

After earning an undergraduate degree, the next educational requirement is to complete 4 years of medical school and earn either an M.D. or D.O. degree. Gaining acceptance to medical school is competitive, so having a high GPA, good MCAT score (entrance exam), letters of recommendation, and healthcare experience will help strengthen your application. Learn more by visiting the Association of American Medical Colleges website.

Finish a Residency in Urology

Once students graduate from medical school, the next step is to complete an accredited 3-5-year residency program in urology to gain hands-on training. There are over 100 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) approved urology residency programs in the U.S. that provide extensive clinical experience. Residents will train under attending urologist physicians and progress through different rotations and surgical cases related to kidneys, bladder, prostate, etc.

Consider a Fellowship

After finishing the general urology residency, some physicians choose to pursue an additional 1-2 year fellowship program to sub-specialize in a certain area like pediatric urology, urologic oncology, male infertility, etc. However, this step is optional – following the residency, urologists can begin practicing independently.

Become Board Certified

The final requirement is to pass the board certification exams administered by the American Board of Urology. This involves an oral exam after residency completion and computer-based modular exams given periodically. Maintenance of board certification includes staying up-to-date with the latest advancements in the field through continuing education.

Postgraduate Training for Urologists

Becoming a urologist requires extensive postgraduate training after finishing four years of medical school and obtaining an M.D. Typically, this includes:

Skills and Qualities of a Successful Urologist

Becoming a successful urologist requires developing several important skills and qualities. Urology is a complex and demanding field, so urologists must be dedicated to lifelong learning and self-improvement.

Communication Skills

Excellent communication skills are vital for urologists. They must clearly communicate complex conditions and treatment options to patients from diverse backgrounds. Urologists should use language patients understand while displaying compassion and cultural awareness. Strong listening skills also help urologists understand patient concerns and preferences when making treatment recommendations.

Technical Skills

Urologists rely on specialized technical skills to diagnose and treat a broad range of urological conditions. They must become experts at performing delicate surgical procedures and interpreting lab tests and imaging results. Manual dexterity, physical coordination, and visual accuracy are essential when performing cystoscopies and prostate biopsies. Staying updated on the latest technology and techniques through continuing education is also crucial.

Critical Thinking

To accurately diagnose and develop treatment plans, urologists must excel at assessing patients’ symptoms, medical histories, and test findings. They synthesize complex information to determine the most likely diagnoses and evidence-based treatments. Expert critical thinking skills also aid surgical decision-making and adjustments when unexpected anatomy or complications occur.


Urologists work closely with fellow surgeons, primary care doctors, oncologists, and other specialists to coordinate optimal patient care. They must collaborate effectively with nurses and support staff during surgeries as well. Teamwork, leadership abilities, and interpersonal skills are vital.


Urology often involves managing challenging cases and surgical complications. Urologists must handle high-stakes scenarios while making critical decisions under pressure. Emotional resilience, stress tolerance, and perseverance through failures are essential qualities for this demanding but rewarding medical specialty.

Urologist Salary

Years of ExperienceAverage Salary Range
0-5 years$120,000 – $180,000
5-10 years$180,000 – $250,000
10-20 years$250,000 – $350,000
20+ years$300,000 – $400,000

Career Opportunities and Advancement

Urologists have fulfilling and versatile career paths spanning private practices, academic medicine, hospital care, and subspecialties.

Private Practice

Many urologists choose to enter private practice focusing on areas like general urology, men’s health, oncology, pediatrics, or women’s pelvic medicine. Private practice allows urologists to have autonomy in setting their schedules, procedures, and payment policies. Small group practices also provide collaboration opportunities with partners.

Hospital Settings

Alternatively, urologists may work in hospitals caring for inpatients, performing various urologic surgeries, and overseeing emergency issues. They interact closely with physicians, specialists, and staff across departments. Over time, hospital urologists may assume leadership roles such as:

Academic Urology

For those interested in research and teaching, academic hospital positions and university faculty appointments as urology professors allow for balancing patient care with specialization. Aspiring academics have opportunities to:

Fellowship Training

Following residency, motivated urologists may pursue fellowship training for 1-3 additional years to gain subspecialty expertise in realms like:


In summary, becoming a urologist requires many years of education and training but can be a rewarding career path for those dedicated to caring for patients with urological conditions. The first step is obtaining a bachelor’s degree, preferably in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics coursework, to prepare for medical school. After four years of medical school and obtaining an MD, aspiring urologists must then complete a 5-year urology residency program to gain hands-on training. They may also complete a 1-2 year fellowship for a subspecialty expertise. With this extensive preparation and by becoming board-certified in urology, an individual can enter the field as a fully qualified urologist ready to diagnose and treat everything from infections to cancers in their patients’ urinary tract and male reproductive systems. The American Urological Association provides additional guidance for those considering this specialty.

Additional Resources

Resource Link Description
American Urological Association Professional association for urologists with information on the field and training pathways; details on medical school, residency, fellowships, and certification.
Urology Care Foundation Patient education resources on urological conditions and procedures; overviews of what urologists do daily.
American Medical Association Outline of the urology specialty and subspecialties; insights into lifestyle, salary, and competitiveness of the field.
Association of American Medical Colleges Details on length of training and work-life balance; overview of treating patients across gender and age ranges.


What education is required to become a urologist?
To become a urologist, you must complete a bachelor’s degree, attend four years of medical school to earn your MD, and then complete a 5-year urology residency program. The residency allows you to gain supervised experience in diagnosing and treating urological conditions. You must also pass the medical licensing exam and become board-certified by the American Board of Urology. Most aspiring urologists major in biology, chemistry, or related fields as undergraduates before applying to medical school.

What is the average urologist’s salary?
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average annual salary for urologists in the United States is over $208,000 as of 2020. However, salaries can vary depending on factors like years of experience, geographic location, and type of practice. The top 10% of urologists earn more than $461,000 per year.

How much experience is required to become a urologist?
Becoming a practicing urologist requires at least ten years of education and training after high school. This includes four years of medical school to earn the MD and then five years of clinical residency training in urology. After completing residency training, many urologists choose to pursue 1-2 years of specialty fellowship training to focus on a subspecialty like kidney stones, male infertility, or pediatric urology. This additional training is not required but allows them to offer specialized care.

What does the work environment look like for a urologist?
Urologists can work in various healthcare settings, including private practices, hospitals, and academic medical centers. Those in private practice tend to work regular daytime hours between 40-50 hours per week. Hospital urologists may need to be available on call to provide urgent or emergency care. The work often involves performing surgery, diagnostic tests, prescribing medications, and meeting with patients to discuss treatment plans for various urological conditions.