How to become a Radiologist: A Comprehensive guide

Updated on January 15, 2024


A radiologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating injuries and diseases using medical imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, ultrasounds, and nuclear medicine tests. If you are interested in the high-tech field of radiology and want to directly help patients by providing accurate diagnoses, becoming a radiologist may be a good career path for you. The road is long – it takes approximately 11 years of training after high school to start practicing. However, radiologists are well compensated for their extensive education and training. This article will walk you through the step-by-step process of becoming a radiologist, starting with a solid math and science background in high school. We’ll cover the college, medical school, residency, and licensing requirements you must fulfill to practice as a radiologist in your state.

What is a Radiologist?

A radiologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating injuries and diseases using medical imaging techniques. Radiologists are experts at reading and interpreting images from X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine tests.

Education and Training

Subheading: Radiologists undergo extensive medical training to gain specialized knowledge in radiation physics, anatomy, and physiology to interpret medical images and diagnose conditions accurately. After finishing four years of pre-medical undergraduate studies, aspiring radiologists must complete four years of medical school to earn their MD or DO. This is followed by five years of residency training in radiology, where they learn hands-on how to read different types of diagnostic images. Many radiologists pursue an additional 1-2 years of specialty fellowship training in areas like neuroradiology, pediatric radiology, or interventional radiology. Becoming a licensed radiologist takes 11-13 years of higher education and training beyond a bachelor’s degree.

Day-to-Day Responsibilities

Radiologists examine medical images and report their diagnostic findings in their daily work. They confer with referring physicians to understand patients’ medical history and ensure the most appropriate imaging tests are performed. Radiologists also oversee imaging technologists during their imaging procedures, like x-rays, ultrasounds, and CT scans. Some radiologists are also trained in performing minimally invasive image-guided treatments, such as needle biopsies. Between interpreting images and consulting with physicians and patients, the typical workday of a radiologist is fast-paced and varies from day to day.

What do Radiologists do?

Radiologists are medical doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating injuries and diseases using medical imaging techniques. As experts in reading and interpreting images, radiologists play a critical role in healthcare. Some of the key duties and responsibilities radiologists undertake include:

Educational Requirements for Becoming Radiologists

Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

The first step toward becoming a radiologist is earning a bachelor’s degree from an accredited university. Some common majors for aspiring radiologists include biology, chemistry, physics, or pre-med. Make sure to take anatomy, physiology, biology, physics, chemistry, and math courses, which form a strong educational foundation for medical school. Many medical schools require at least some undergraduate courses in English and the social sciences as well.

Complete Medical School

After earning a bachelor’s degree, the next educational requirement is to complete four years of medical school and earn either a Medical Doctor (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree. Gaining admission into medical school is competitive, so having a high GPA and good MCAT exam scores boosts your chances significantly. Learn more about getting into medical school at the Association of American Medical Colleges

During the first two years of medical school, students take classroom courses in areas like pathology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, psychology, medical ethics, and more. The final two years focus on clinical rotations, allowing students to gain hands-on experience working with real patients. Common rotations include internal medicine, family medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and psychiatry.

Complete a Residency in Radiology

After finishing medical school, prospective radiologists must complete a 5-year residency program in radiology. The residency provides intensive training under the supervision of experienced radiologists in interpreting images and using equipment like X-ray machines, CT scanners, and MRI machines. Residents also further develop diagnostic skills by observing disease progression and patient outcomes over time. After finishing their residency, radiologists must pass comprehensive exams to become board-certified.

Postgraduate Training for Radiologists

Becoming a radiologist requires extensive postgraduate training after finishing medical school. This includes the following key steps:

Licensure and Certification

Becoming a licensed radiologist requires significant education and training. After completing a bachelor’s degree, aspiring radiologists must attend four years of medical school to earn their MD or DO. Following medical school, they must then complete a 5-year radiology residency program to gain specialized training in interpreting medical images and using radiologic equipment.

Practicing as a licensed radiologist in the United States requires several exams. During their fourth year of medical school, candidates must pass the first part of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), according to the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB). After graduating from medical school, radiologists must then pass USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge and USMLE Step 3. Once radiologists start their residency program, they must take the Core Exam administered by the American Board of Radiology (ABR). Within a year before or after completing their residency, radiologists must pass the Certifying Exam given by the ABR to become board-certified radiologists. 

In addition to passing these licensing and certification exams, the ABR also requires radiologists to obtain continuing medical education credits and demonstrate competency by maintaining certification programs throughout their careers. To keep their licenses current, radiologists must renew their ABR certification every ten years. The licensing and credentialing process ensures radiologists are highly trained and qualified to interpret complex medical scans accurately.

Skills and Qualities of a Successful Radiologist

Becoming a radiologist requires dedication, perseverance, and the development of specialized medical knowledge and technical skills. Here are some of the key skills and personal qualities that contribute to being an effective radiologist:

Technical Skills

Interpersonal Abilities 

Personal Qualities

Mastering both complex technical knowledge and nurturing these personal qualities leads to a fulfilling and meaningful career as a radiologist. The combination of medical detective work, cutting-edge technology, and patient care makes radiology a uniquely rewarding field.

Radiologist Salary

Radiologist income can vary depending on your experience, location, and employer. Generally speaking, the more years of experience you have as a radiologist, the higher your earning potential. The table below gives average radiologist salaries by years of experience:

Years of ExperienceAverage Salary
Less than 1 year$200,000
1-4 years$240,000
5-9 years$280,000
10-19 years$320,000
20 or more years$365,000

In addition to years on the job, where you work also impacts your radiology pay. Those employed with large hospital systems or private radiology group practices tend to earn more than academic or research radiologists. The top-paying states for radiologists are New Hampshire, Washington, Wisconsin, South Dakota, and Rhode Island.

Career Opportunities and Advancement

Becoming a radiologist opens up many career opportunities and room for advancement. Radiologists can work in various settings, including hospitals, imaging centers, and private practices. Some radiologists also choose an academic career path and teach at medical schools while practicing radiology.

As radiologists gain more experience and expertise, they may have opportunities to take on leadership or administrative roles. Some common advancement opportunities include:


In summary, becoming a radiologist requires extensive education and training but can be a rewarding career for those dedicated to the medical imaging field. First, complete a bachelor’s degree with prerequisite courses, then apply to medical school and complete four more years to earn an MD. Next, complete a 5-year radiology residency, gaining hands-on experience interpreting images and working with cutting-edge technology. Finally, consider becoming board-certified by the American Board of Radiology to demonstrate your expertise. With drive and commitment, you can join this vital specialty that diagnoses illnesses and guides patient treatment plans. Learn more about the radiologist career path from the American College of Radiology.

Additional Resources

Resource Link Description
American College of Radiology
  • The professional organization for radiologists
  • Information on radiology careers and training
  • Overview of radiology subspecialties
Society of Interventional Radiology
  • Professional organization for interventional radiologists
  • Details on interventional radiology career and training
  • Research, news, and resources in interventional radiology
Aunt Minnie
  • Leading radiology news and education website
  • Radiology case studies, images, and courses
  • Forums to discuss radiology with peers
  • Patient information on radiology procedures and tests
  • Helpful for learning the basics of imaging modalities
  • Sponsored by radiology professional societies


What education is required to become a radiologist?
To become a radiologist, you need a bachelor’s degree and four years of medical school to earn your MD or DO degree. After medical school, you must complete a 5-year residency program in radiology to gain specialized training in interpreting medical images and using radiologic equipment. Many radiologists pursue additional 1-2 year fellowships to subspecialize in areas like interventional radiology or pediatric radiology.

What is the average salary for a radiologist?
The average salary for a radiologist is around $426,000 per year, making it one of the highest-paying specialties in medicine. However, salaries can range from $300,000 up to over $500,000 annually, depending on your subspecialty, years of experience, and region you work in. Interventional radiologists tend to be on the higher end of the pay scale.

How much work experience is required to become a radiologist?
Becoming a radiologist requires extensive training but no specific work experience before entering your residency program. After four years of medical school, radiology residents must complete a 5-year residency in the specialty. Some radiologists also pursue 1-2 years of additional fellowship training to subspecialize. So, the entire training process takes approximately 10-13 years after a bachelor’s degree.

What does the day-to-day work of a radiologist look like?
A typical day for a radiologist involves interpreting or “reading” a high volume of exams like x-rays, CT scans, MRIs, mammograms, and ultrasounds. Radiologists use these images to diagnose diseases and injuries. Most radiology work is done on computers and workstations. Interventional radiologists also spend time performing minimally invasive image-guided procedures on patients. The workload can be demanding, but radiology affords a relatively flexible lifestyle compared to other medical specialties.