How to become Endocrinologist : A Comprehensive Guide

Updated on January 9, 2024


Endocrinology is a branch of medicine that diagnoses and treats conditions related to hormones and the endocrine system, such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and more. If you want to become an endocrinologist, you must first obtain an undergraduate degree, typically in biology or pre-med, before attending four years of medical school to earn your MD. After graduating, you must complete a 3-4 year residency program in internal medicine, followed by a 2-3 year endocrinology fellowship. The path requires commitment but allows you to make a difference as a specialist treating complex hormonal conditions. You can attain the knowledge and experience to become a licensed, board-certified endocrinologist with drive and perseverance.

What is an Endocrinologist?

An endocrinologist is a medical doctor specializing in treating disorders of the endocrine system, the network of glands that produce hormones in the body. Some common endocrine disorders that endocrinologists treat include:

Endocrinologists have extensive medical training, completing:

After medical school, they complete the following:

From college through their endocrinology fellowship, it takes approximately 12-14 years of education and training to become a licensed, board-certified endocrinologist. However, this extensive education enables endocrinologists to provide expert care and manage complex hormonal and endocrine diseases and disorders. They have a strong understanding of the intricate hormonal feedback systems in the body and how to treat imbalances that occur.

What do Endocrinologists do?

Endocrinologists are doctors who specialize in treating hormone disorders and diseases related to the endocrine system, which is made up of glands that produce and release hormones into the bloodstream. Some of the key things endocrinologists do include:

Diagnose and treat diabetes

Endocrinologists have advanced training in managing all forms of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They prescribe insulin and other medications, develop diet and exercise plans, and monitor patients’ blood sugar levels. They may also conduct diabetes research and clinical trials.

Treat thyroid disorders

The thyroid gland plays a major role in regulating metabolism. Endocrinologists diagnose and treat various thyroid diseases like hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, and more. From prescribing thyroid hormone replacements to monitoring antibody levels, endocrinologists have expertise in restoring thyroid function.

Manage growth and puberty issues

Endocrinologists treat children with problems attaining normal height and weight and going through puberty properly. They conduct tests to measure growth hormone levels and determine if growth hormone therapy is needed.

Manage hormonal and endocrine health issues

Endocrinologists have advanced knowledge of the complex endocrine system and its interaction with hormones and glands like the pituitary, adrenal, and reproductive glands. They treat hormonal imbalances, endocrine diseases, and interrelated conditions like infertility, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders.

Provide patient education

A big part of an endocrinologist’s job is educating patients about their condition, required lifestyle changes, taking medications correctly, and preventing complications. They collaborate with nutritionists and other providers to ensure patients understand and can manage their treatment plans.

With their specialized understanding of the body’s intricate hormonal and metabolic processes, endocrinologists play a critical role in helping patients regulate complex systems and functions. Their expertise enables them to restore balance and health when disease strikes the endocrine system.

Educational Requirements for Becoming an Endocrinologist?

Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

The first step toward becoming an endocrinologist is earning a bachelor’s degree from an accredited four-year college or university. Some common majors for aspiring endocrinologists include biology, chemistry, biochemistry, or pre-med. Make sure to maintain a strong Grade Point Average (GPA) while pursuing a bachelor’s degree, as this will be important when applying to medical school later on. Additionally, prepare for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which you must take before applying to medical school.

Complete Medical School

After earning a bachelor’s degree, the next educational requirement is to complete four years of medical school and earn either a Medical Doctor (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree. Gaining admission into medical school is highly competitive, particularly in top-ranked programs, so having a high GPA and MCAT score from your undergraduate bachelor’s degree can improve your chances. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), the average GPA for students admitted to medical school is 3.7, and the MCAT score is 511.2 (out of 528).

Finish a Residency in Internal Medicine

Once you have graduated from medical school, the next requirement is to complete a 3-year residency program in internal medicine. As an internist, you will train in diagnosing and treating illnesses in adult patients. This residency will provide a strong medical foundation before specializing further in endocrinology. The number of spots in internal medicine residencies is limited, so you will go through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) to apply for positions.

Complete an Endocrinology Fellowship

The final educational requirement is a 2-3 year endocrinology fellowship, where you receive advanced clinical training dedicated specifically to diagnosing and treating endocrine system disorders. During this hands-on fellowship, you will manage patients under the supervision of an attending endocrinologist and learn about treatment plans, including medications, surgery, and lifestyle changes. After completing the endocrinology fellowship, you can become a board-certified endocrinologist.

Postgraduate Training for Endocrinologists

After completing medical school, advanced postgraduate training is the next step to becoming an endocrinologist. This includes first completing an internal medicine residency program, which usually takes three years. As an internal medicine resident, you will train broadly in diagnosing and nonsurgically treating diseases in adult patients.

Once your internal medicine residency is finished, you can then apply to endocrinology fellowship programs. These highly competitive 2-3-year fellowships provide extensive immersive training, specifically in the fields of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism. As a fellow, you will manage patients in inpatient and outpatient clinics under the supervision of attending endocrinologist physicians. Furthermore, you will participate in didactic lectures on the latest advancements in endocrine disorders and their treatments. Opportunities to conduct clinical endocrine research are also often available.

After completing an accredited internal medicine residency and clinical endocrinology fellowship training program, you can become board-certified in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and metabolism by passing the exam administered through the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM). This certification demonstrates your advanced knowledge and clinical skills to properly diagnose and manage complex conditions related to hormones and metabolism.

In summary, postgraduate training to become an endocrinologist involves 3-5 years of residency and fellowship, allowing you to gain proficiency in both general internal medicine and specialized endocrine care. This paves the way to becoming a licensed, board-certified endocrinologist.

Licensure and Certification

Becoming an endocrinologist requires significant education and training beyond medical school. After completing four years of medical school and achieving an MD or DO, aspiring endocrinologists must then complete a 3-year internal medicine residency program. Following their internal medicine residency, they must then complete a 2-3 year endocrinology fellowship training program.


Once an endocrinology fellow completes their training, they must become licensed in their state to practice medicine legally. Doctors must pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Steps 1, 2, and 3 to qualify for state licensure. Passing these exams and applying for a license demonstrates to state medical boards that endocrinologists are qualified in their medical knowledge and ready to practice medicine. Licenses must be renewed periodically by completing continuing education credits. Learn more about medical licensing at the Federation of State Medical Boards.


In addition to a license, most endocrinologists pursue board certification by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) in the subspecialty of endocrinology. This involves passing a certifying exam to demonstrate expertise in diagnosing and treating endocrine diseases. Certification is not required to practice, but it demonstrates advanced qualifications and is often required by most healthcare employers. Board certification must be renewed every ten years by taking exams to demonstrate ongoing expertise. Doctors also have to meet other requirements like completing continuing education. Learn more about endocrinology board certification requirements on the American Board of Internal Medicine website.

Having the proper medical license and board certifications signals to healthcare employers and patients that an endocrinologist is qualified and competent in safely and effectively caring for patients with complex hormonal conditions. It requires a commitment to significant education and training beyond medical school.

Skills and Qualities of a Successful


Becoming a successful endocrinologist requires developing certain key skills and qualities. Endocrinologists need expertise in internal medicine, strong critical thinking and analytical abilities, compassion for working with patients, and commitment to continuing education.

Critical Thinking and Analysis

Endocrinologists must be able to assess patients’ symptoms, evaluate complex test results, and develop effective treatment plans. They need strong critical thinking skills to integrate findings into diagnoses and identify how to manage complex conditions like diabetes or thyroid disorders. Analyzing subtle changes and abnormalities requires sharp observational skills and meticulous attention to detail. Successful endocrinologists can piece together subtle clues to uncover the root causes of hormone imbalances or endocrine system dysfunction.

Medical and Scientific Knowledge

Extensive medical expertise in internal medicine, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, and pharmacology is fundamental. To provide optimal care, endocrinologists must understand the complex interactions between hormones, organs, medications, and diseases. They need to stay on top of the latest research and guidelines in the rapidly advancing field of endocrinology through committed continuing education.

Communication and Interpersonal Skills

Succeeding as an endocrinologist also requires compassion and patience when working with patients. Effective communication skills are essential for educating patients about their conditions and treatment options in an understandable way. The ability to listen carefully helps endocrinologists understand patient concerns, explain complex diagnoses, and develop trusting doctor-patient relationships over ongoing care.

Endocrinologist Salary

The average salary for an endocrinologist in the United States is $201,810 per year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, salaries can range from $59,800 for an entry-level endocrinologist just starting to $267,000 or higher for senior endocrinologists with many years of experience.

Several factors impact an endocrinologist’s salary potential, including:

– Years of experience – More years in practice leads to higher pay
– Geographic location – Those working in larger metropolitan areas tend to have higher wages
– Type of practice – Endocrinologists working in an academic university setting usually earn less than those in private practice

The table below gives a comparison of average endocrinologist salaries by years of experience:

Years of Experience Average Salary
0-5 years $150,000
5-10 years $190,000
10-20 years $230,000
20+ years $270,000

Career Opportunities and Advancement

Endocrinology offers various career opportunities for those who complete the required medical training. As an endocrinologist, you may choose to work in:

In a hospital setting, endocrinologists:

Those in private practice:

In academic medicine, endocrinologists:

Some leverage expertise in pharmaceutical/biotech by:


In conclusion, becoming an endocrinologist requires many years of education and training. Still, it can be a very rewarding career path for those dedicated to caring for patients with hormone-related conditions. After completing a bachelor’s degree, you must attend medical school and obtain an MD or DO degree. This is followed by 3-4 years in an internal medicine residency program and then 2-3 more years in an endocrinology fellowship.

Throughout this long educational journey, it is important to gain extensive knowledge in areas like physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and pathology as they relate to the endocrine system. Excellent diagnostic, management, and interpersonal skills are vital for an effective endocrinologist.

If you think you have the commitment and skills needed in this demanding but meaningful career, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and The Endocrine Society offer many helpful resources to guide you. Speaking with experienced endocrinologist mentors can also provide invaluable advice as you work to achieve your goal. Though the road is long, supporting patients struggling with various endocrine conditions can make the effort incredibly rewarding.

Additional Resources

Resource Website Description
The Endocrine Society – Information on endocrinology training and career paths.
– Details on residency and fellowship programs.
– Educational events and mentorship opportunities.
Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) – Guidance on getting into medical school.
– Timelines, data, and statistics on medical schools.
– Access to the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and advice for pre-med students.
American Medical Association (AMA) – Useful information on medical education and physician careers.
University Websites and Program Pages – Explore specific prerequisites, curriculum, research opportunities, and institution training.
Networking with Current Medical Students and Practicing Endocrinologists – Gain insights and perspectives on entering the field.
Shadowing Opportunities – Confirm your interest and aptitude in the field.
Online Forums and Communities Reddit’s r/premed: – Connect with peers to share experiences, challenges, and successes in your medical journey.
Student Doctor Network:


What is an endocrinologist?
An endocrinologist is a medical doctor who specializes in treating diseases related to hormones and the endocrine system, which is the system in the body that regulates hormones. Endocrinologists treat conditions like diabetes, thyroid disorders, growth problems, osteoporosis, and infertility.

What degree do you need to become an endocrinologist?
Becoming an endocrinologist requires extensive education and training. After completing a 4-year bachelor’s degree, you must attend four years of medical school to earn a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree. After graduating from medical school, you must complete 3-4 years of residency training in internal medicine. Finally, you must complete 2-3 additional years of fellowship training specifically focused on endocrinology and metabolism. The whole training process takes approximately 12-14 years after high school.

What skills are important for an endocrinologist to have?
Important skills for an endocrinologist include analytical thinking, attention to detail, communication skills, compassion for working with patients, leadership abilities, physical stamina to complete lengthy training, and expertise in diagnosis and treatment of complex hormonal disorders. Keeping up with the latest advancements in the field through continuing education is also critical.

What is the job outlook and salary range for endocrinologists?
The job outlook for endocrinologists is excellent right now. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment of all physicians and surgeons is projected to grow 13 percent from 2020 to 2030, much faster than the average across all occupations. According to salary data from ZipRecruiter, the average salary for endocrinologists is over $200,000 per year. Those working in academic medicine or large specialty practices tend to earn the highest salaries.