How to Become a Hematologist: A Comprehensive Guide

Updated on January 20, 2024

A hematologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diseases and disorders related to blood, bone marrow, and the immune system. If you are interested in a career where you can help diagnose and treat conditions like anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, and bleeding disorders, becoming a hematologist may be a good path for you. First and foremost, you must complete an undergraduate degree, typically with a focus on science courses, in order to apply for medical school. Then, you need to graduate from a 4-year medical school program and obtain your medical degree before moving on to a residency in internal medicine. After that, you can complete a fellowship in hematology to specialize in this field. The road is long, but rewarding for those dedicated to studying blood disorders and helping patients. According to the American Society of Hematology (ASH), there is a growing demand for hematologists. If you have a passion for hematology, check out the steps on ASH’s website for becoming a hematologist.

What is a Hematologist?

A hematologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diseases and disorders of the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system. Hematologists treat a wide variety of blood conditions including anemia, bleeding disorders, blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, and blood clots.

Education and Training

Earn a Bachelor’s Degree

The first step toward becoming a hematologist is completing an undergraduate bachelor’s degree, typically taking 4 years. Some common majors for aspiring hematologists include biology, chemistry, biochemistry, or pre-med. Make sure to take courses required for medical school admission like biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Getting hands-on research experience as an undergraduate can also help strengthen your application to medical school.

Medical School

After college, the next educational requirement is to earn a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree. This involves 4 years of medical school with the first 2 years focused on classroom instruction and the last 2 years focused on clinical rotations. Aspiring hematologists should seek opportunities during medical school to gain experience in hematology through elective coursework or clinical rotations. Learn more at the American Association of Medical College website.

Residency Training

After finishing medical school, the next requirement is to complete a 3-5 year residency program in internal medicine or pediatrics. This provides supervised training with hands-on patient care. Those interested specifically in blood disorders often pursue additional subspecialty fellowship training after residency (see next section).

Fellowship Program

Finally, to become a practicing hematologist, 1-3 years of additional training in a hematology fellowship program is required after the internal medicine or pediatrics residency. This advanced training focuses entirely on diagnosing and treating blood diseases and disorders. After finishing the fellowship, hematologists are then eligible for board certification through the American Board of Internal Medicine.

Skills and Qualities of a Successful Hematologist

Becoming a hematologist requires developing a specific skillset and embodying certain qualities that contribute to success in this medical specialty.

Technical Skills

Hematologists require extensive medical knowledge and diagnostic skills to identify and treat diseases and disorders of the blood. Some key technical skills include:

Interpersonal Abilities

In addition to medical expertise, exceptional interpersonal skills are vital for hematologists. These include:

The most successful hematologists combine strong technical expertise with genuine interpersonal skills to provide exceptional patient care and outcomes. Honing both the scientific and humanistic aspects of hematology leads to a rewarding career.

Hematologist Salary

The salary for a hematologist can vary depending on their level of experience, location, and type of practice. However, hematologists are generally very well compensated for their advanced expertise. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average annual salary for physicians and surgeons across all specialties was $213,270 as of 2021. Those working in hospitals tended to earn the highest wages.

More specific salary data from various sources shows that hematologists earn:

As you might expect, hematologists with more years on the job tend to earn higher pay than newcomers to the field. Here’s an overview:

Experience vs Salary for Hematologists

Years ExperienceAverage Salary
Less than 1 year$200,000-$250,000
1-4 years$225,000-$275,000
5-9 years$275,000-$350,000
10-19 years$300,000-$450,000
20 years or more$400,000+

So while starting salaries are strong right out of hematology training and certification, pay rapidly increases with experience. Those who stick with hematology practice for the long-haul can expect to be very well compensated.

Hematologists working in academic medicine or research tend to make less than those working in hospital settings. Industry jobs with pharmaceutical companies also offer higher salaries but are less common. Overall though, hematology remains one of the higher paying medical specialties thanks to the complex patient cases and knowledge required to excel in this field.

Career Opportunities and Advancement

Hematologists have a wide range of career opportunities in healthcare. Many work in hospitals, university medical centers, private practices, research laboratories, blood banks, and pharmaceutical companies. Some key career paths and advancement opportunities include:

Clinical Practice

Hematologists can work as medical doctors focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and malignancies. With experience, hematologists may advance to senior medical director roles in major hospitals and medical centers, directing hematology departments and specializing in complex disorders. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, physicians and surgeons earn a median salary of over $200,000 per year.

Academic Research

Academic medical centers and universities employ hematologists to teach medical students, provide patient care, and conduct research. With a PhD instead of an MD, one can work specifically in hematology research. Publishing research and securing funding helps scientists advance from post-doctoral fellow to independent investigator, and attain full professor status. Professors earn median pay exceeding $100,000 annually.

Industry Jobs

Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies hire hematologists for roles in drug development, medical affairs, scientific communications, and as medical science liaisons. With an MD or PhD in hematology, scientists can help discover and test new treatments. Transitioning from academia and clinical practice into the pharmaceutical industry can provide excellent pay, benefits and advancement potential.


After years as practicing hematologists, physicians may move into medical director and executive leadership roles in major hospitals, managed care organizations, public health organizations, and government agencies. These management level positions pay upwards of $200,000 or more per year.

With specialized training and experience, hematologists can advance their careers in healthcare administration, teaching, research and industry jobs. Continuing education and excelling in these vital roles supporting patients and the healthcare system provide rewarding lifelong career opportunities.


Becoming a hematologist is a long and challenging journey, but it can lead to a fulfilling and impactful career. Hematologists play a crucial role in diagnosing and treating blood-related disorders and cancers, improving patients’ lives, and contributing to medical advancements. If you are dedicated to the study of blood and willing to invest the time and effort required for education and training, a career in hematology may be the right choice for you. Explore the educational pathways, develop the necessary skills and qualities, and consider the potential for subspecialization to maximize your impact in this field.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What does a hematologist do?

A hematologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diseases and disorders related to blood, bone marrow, and the immune system. They diagnose and treat conditions like anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, and bleeding disorders.

What qualifications are needed to become a hematologist?

To become a hematologist, you need to complete an undergraduate degree usually in science, graduate from a 4-year medical school program, complete a residency in internal medicine or pediatrics, and then undergo a fellowship in hematology.

What skills should a hematologist have?

Hematologists need technical skills like understanding blood cell morphology, interpreting test results, and providing patient care. They also need interpersonal abilities like effective communication, compassion, collaboration, and attention to detail.

How long does it take to become a hematologist?

The journey to become a hematologist is long. It includes 4 years of undergraduate studies, 4 years of medical school, 3-5 years of residency, and 1-3 years of fellowship. So, it takes around 12-16 years to become a hematologist after finishing high school.

How much does a hematologist earn?

The salary of a hematologist varies based on experience, location, and type of practice. However, on average, hematologists earn between $248,706 and $357,000 per year according to various sources.

What is the job outlook for hematologists?

There is a growing demand for hematologists according to the American Society of Hematology. Hematologists can work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, academic medical centers, private practices, research laboratories, blood banks, and pharmaceutical companies.

Do hematologists only treat blood cancers?

While hematologists do treat blood cancers like leukemia and lymphoma, they also treat a wide variety of other blood disorders, including anemia, bleeding disorders, and blood clots.

Can a hematologist perform surgery?

Hematologists are not surgeons, but they can perform certain procedures such as bone marrow biopsies or transfusions. For surgical procedures, they work in collaboration with surgeons.

What kind of research do hematologists do?

Hematologists can conduct research in various areas related to blood disorders and diseases. This might include developing new treatments for blood cancers, studying the genetics of blood diseases, or investigating new ways to manage bleeding disorders.

What is the difference between a hematologist and an oncologist?

While both hematologists and oncologists treat cancer, hematologists specialize in blood cancers and blood disorders. Oncologists, on the other hand, treat a wide range of cancers, not just those affecting the blood.